Hazards by Species

Species Causes of Injuries Allergies Zoonosis
Mice Bites May develop from exposure to mouse urine and fur Hantavirus
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)
Leptospirosis
Salmonella spp.
Microsporidiosis (Microsporum spp.)
Ringworm (Trichophyton spp. )
Dwarf tapeworm  (Hymenolepsis nana)
Tularemia (Francisella tularensis)
Yersiniosis
Rats Bites-will bite when frightened or in pain May develop after having contact with them for some time.                                                   Hantavirus
Leptospirosis
Salmonella spp.
Rat-bite Fever (Strepbacillus moniliformin and Spirillum minus)
Sporotrichosis (Sporothrix  schenskii)
Tularemia (Francisella tularensis)
Yersiniosis
Dwarf tapeworm  (Hymenolepsis nana)
Hamsters Bites-will bite when startled from sleep or when frightened or in pain May develop after having contact with them for some time. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)
Leptospirosis
Giardiasis
Dwarf tapeworm  (Hymenolepsis nana)
Guinea Pigs May scratch but typically docile May develop after having contact with them for some time. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)
Gerbils May bite but typically docile May develop after having contact with them for some time. Leptospirosis
Giardiasis
Dwarf tapeworm  (Hymenolepsis nana)
Salmonella spp.
Rabbits Bites from incisors Scratches especially by the hind feet May develop after having contact with them for some time Tularemia (Francisella tularensis)
Leptospirosis
Yersiniosis (Yersinia pseudotuberulosis)
Microsporidiosis (Microsporum spp.)
Ringworm (Trichophyton spp. )
Q fever (Coxiella burnetti)
Cryptosporidiosis
Cats Bites-wounds caused by deep penetration of the canine teeth may become infected with dangerous pathogens such as Pseudomonas spp. and Pasteurella spp. Scratches from toenails May develop after having contact with them for some time. Rabies virus
Cat scratch fever (Bartonella henselae)
Campylobacteriosis
Leptospirosis
Salmonella spp.
Microsporidiosis (Microsporum spp.)
Ringworm (Trichophyton spp. )
Cryptosporidiosis
Giardiasis
Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
Yersiniosis
Dogs Bites from long canine teeth and sharp carnassials Scratches from toenails Falls-especially when floors are wet and dogs are allowed to jump on people Back injuries while lifting a dog May develop after having contact for some time with their urine, dander and saliva. Rabies virus
Brucellosis (Brucella canis)
Campylobacteriosis
Leptospirosis.
Salmonella spp.
Microsporidiosis (Microsporum spp.)
Ringworm (Trichophyton spp. )
Cryptosporidiosis
Giardiasis.
Yersiniosis
Swine Falls:  Swine tend to root at handlers working within their pens causing falls. Bites are uncommon but swine try to nibble at handlers unless they are actively discouraged from doing so. Back injuries while lifting swine. Uncommon but has been rarely reported. Influenza virus type A
Vesicular stomatitis
Erysipelothris rhusiopathiae
Brucellosis (Brucella suis)
Campylobacteriosis
Escherichia coli
Salmonella spp.
Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis)
Balantidiasis (Balantidium coli)
Yersiniosis
Leptospirosis
Sheep and Goats Running into handler and/or knocking them over. Lacerations, bites, back strain, and knee injuries from trying to restrain them. Jumping is common for sheep and can jump with enough force to break a handler’s leg or high enough to strike the face Butting is another defensive activity of sheep so never turn your back on the animal while in its pen. Goats are more difficult to handle than sheep. Allergic reactions to sheep are rare. Proteins on the hair and skin flakes of goats can cause allergic reactions Contact dermatitis can also occur when handling the wool of sheep Q fever (Coxiella burnetti)
Listeriosis (Listeria monocytogenes)
Rabies virus
Brucellosis
Anthrax
Salmonella spp.
Campylobacteriosis
Giardiasis
Cryptosporidiosis
Escherichia coli
Yersiniosis
Orf (Parapox)
Cattle Kicking Bites Stepped on Squeezed between the animal and a solid structure. Pushed, shoved or ran over by the animal Allergies can be to cattle hair, dander, urine, meat and milk. Since allergies stem from the proteins that are secreted in salvia, urine, skin glands and each breed of cattle has unique proteins. Individuals may develop allergies to only certain breeds of cattle. Tuberculosis
Rabies virus
Tetanus (Clostridium tetani)
Q fever (Coxiella burnetti)
Cryptosporidiosis
Escherichia coli
Leptospirosis
Brucellosis
Yersiniosis
Non-Human Primates Bites-canine teeth can produce severe lacerations. Scratches Back injuries: Lifting heavier species. Back injury, falls, and crushing injuries can occur when working primate cages, transport boxes, and other husbandry equipment. No known allergens associated with non-human primates. The environment may have allergens such as dust from bedding. Herpes B-virus (Cercopithecine herpesvirus)
SIV (Simian Immunodeficiency Virus )
Filoviruses-Marburg virus and Ebola virus
Tuberculosis
Shigellosis (Shigella spp.)
Campylobacteriosis
Yersiniosis (Yersinia spp.)
Escherichia coli
Strongyloidiasis (Strongyloides stercoralis)
Whipworm (Trichuris trichiura)
Pinworm (Enterobius vermicularis )
Amebiasis (Entamoeba histolytica)
Giardiasis (Giardia lamblia)
Cryptosporidiosis (Cryptosporidium parvum)
Birds Bites Scratches Allergen can be found in dander, salvia, urine or feces of birds. Dander from birds when they preen or ruffle their feathers can be sent into the air where it can become into contact with skin or inhaled into the lungs. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a lung condition with symptoms that mimic pneumonia. Symptoms develop after repeated exposure to a specific antigen found in birds. Signs of an allergic reaction after exposure to birds are rhinitis and asthma symptoms (wheezing and dry cough.) Signs and symptoms of both allergic reactions and hypersensitivity pneumonitis usually occur several hours after exposure. Poultry
Psittacosis
Salmonella spp.
Campylobacteriosis
Newcastle disease
Avian Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium avium)
Listeriosis (Listeria monocytogenes) Passerine (including wild-caught)
West Nile Virus
Psittacosis
Salmonella spp.
Newcastle disease
Campylobacteriosis
Avian Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium avium)
Listeriosis (Listeria monocytogenes)
Amphibians Larger species of anurans and caudates are capable of causing painful bites. Many species are capable of secreting toxic compounds from dermal glands. Some species are highly toxic. Uncommon but have been reported. Salmonella spp.
Mycobacterium marinum
Psittacosis
Live food items may carry disease (black worms and bloodworms carry Mycobacterium)
Water may cause infections
Fish Injuries may come from wet/slippery environment Oral allergy syndrome has been linked to people that have occupational contact with fish. Cryptosporidiosis
Mycobacterium marinum
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
Live food items may carry disease (black worms and bloodworms carry Mycobacterium)
Water may cause infections
Ferrets Bites Scratches Allergies may occur from exposure to the animal and it’s waste Psittacosis Cryptosporidiosis
Salmonella spp.
Giardiasis
Leptospirosis
Horses Back Strain from handling or restraining horses due to their size and strength. Kicks Bites Hair and dander are sources for allergies. Proteins secreted by the oil glands in the horses’ skin as well as the proteins in animal saliva, can cause allergic reactions. Rabies virus
Salmonella spp.
Tuberculosis
Anthrax
Brucellosis
Cryptosporidiosis
Leptospirosis
Yersiniosis
Reptiles Bites
Scratches
Rare Cryptosporidiosis
Salmonella spp.
Live food items may carry disease (black worms and bloodworms carry Mycobacterium)
Water for aquatic reptiles may cause infections
Chinchillas Rarely bites unless they become nervous. Chinchillas produce no dander so typically no allergies develop to them. Hay and dust (from dust bathes) may cause allergies. Ringworm (Trichophyton spp.)